Periodontal Diagnosis

What is periodontal disease?

 
 

Periodontal (gum) disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, are serious inflammatory disorders┬áthat, left untreated, can lead to tooth loss. The word periodontal literally means “around the tooth.” Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the gums and bone supporting the teeth. Periodontal disease can affect one tooth or many teeth. It begins when the bacteria in plaque (the sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth) causes the gums to become inflamed.
 
 

Types of Gum Disease

 
 
Untreated periodontal disease can eventually lead to tooth loss and other health problems.

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care.

Factors that may contribute to gingivitis include, diabetes, smoking, aging, genetic predisposition, systemic diseases and conditions, stress, inadequate nutrition, puberty, hormonal fluctuations, pregnancy, substance abuse, HIV infection, and certain medication use.

Periodontitis

Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turns on itself, and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, forming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may have to be removed.

There are many forms of periodontitis. The most common ones include the following.

  • Aggressive periodontitis occurs in patients who are otherwise clinically healthy. Common features include rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation.
  • Chronic periodontitis results in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment and bone loss. This is the most frequently occurring form of periodontitis and is characterized by pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. It is prevalent in adults, but can occur at any age. Progression of attachment loss usually occurs slowly, but periods of rapid progression can occur.
  • Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases often begins at a young age. Systemic conditions such as heart disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes are associated with this form of periodontitis.

 
 

Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation (CPE)

 
 
What is a Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation?

In 2011, the American Academy of Periodontology published the Comprehensive Periodontal Therapy Statement, which recommends that all adults receive an annual comprehensive evaluation of their periodontal health.
A Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation, or CPE, is a way to assess your periodontal health by examining:

  • Your teeth
  • Your plaque
  • Your gums
  • Your bite
  • Your bone structure
  • Your risk factors

When your dental professional, such as a periodontist, general dentist, or dental hygienist, performs this evaluation, they will look at these six areas to determine the state of your periodontal health.

Why do I need a Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation?

Recent research has indicated that the prevalence of periodontal disease in the U.S. may be significantly higher than originally estimated. This means that all adults should thoroughly assess the state of their periodontal health to receive accurate information about the health of their mouths.
By assessing your oral health on an annual basis, you and your dental professional will know how healthy your mouth is, and will be better able to notice any conditions, such as periodontal disease, that may need additional treatment.
Research has also shown, and experts agree, that there is an association between periodontal disease and other chronic inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is very important to treat the inflammation that causes periodontal disease as soon as possible to ensure that your entire body stays healthy.
 
 

Gum Disease Risk Factors

 
 
The main cause of periodontal (gum) disease is plaque, but other factors affect the health of your gums.

Age

Studies indicate that older people have the highest rates of periodontal disease. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that over 70% of Americans 65 and older have periodontitis.

Smoking/Tobacco Use

Tobacco use is linked with many serious illnesses such as cancer, lung disease and heart disease, as well as numerous other health problems. Tobacco users also are at increased risk for periodontal disease. Studies have shown that tobacco use may be one of the most significant risk factors in the development and progression of periodontal disease.

Genetics

Research has indicated that some people may be genetically susceptible to gum disease. Despite aggressive oral care habits, these people may be more likely to develop periodontal disease. Identifying these people with a genetic test before they even show signs of the disease and getting them into early intervention treatment may help them keep their teeth for a lifetime.

Stress

Stress is linked to many serious conditions such as hypertension, cancer, and numerous other health problems. Stress also is a risk factor for periodontal disease. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases.

Medications

Some drugs, such as oral contraceptives, anti-depressants, and certain heart medicines, can affect your oral health. Just as you notify your pharmacist and other health care providers of all medicines you are taking and any changes in your overall health, you should also inform your dental care provider.

Clenching or Grinding Your Teeth

Clenching or grinding your teeth can put excess force on the supporting tissues of the teeth and could speed up the rate at which these periodontal tissues are destroyed.

Other Systemic Diseases

Other systemic diseases that interfere with the body’s inflammatory system may worsen the condition of the gums. These include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Poor Nutrition and Obesity

A diet low in important nutrients can compromise the body’s immune system and make it harder for the body to fight off infection. Because periodontal disease begins as an infection, poor nutrition can worsen the condition of your gums. In addition, research has shown that obesity may increase the risk of periodontal disease.

Contact Us

  • Blayne J. Gumm, DDS,
    ABGD, MAGD, MICOI
  • 490 N Indian Rocks Road
  • Belleair Bluffs, FL 33770

  • Phone: (727) 584-5693
  • Fax: (727) 586-3331